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## IntelligenceRepeating Four Digits ReversedUsing A Code Alternative Test 1: Naming The Months Repeating Five Digits Reversed Comprehension Fourth Degree Repeating Five Digits Essential Nature Of The Scale Interpretation Of Fables (score 4) General Value Of The Method Naming Four Coins Dependence Of The Scale's Reliability On The Training Of The Examiner Repeating Six To Seven Syllables Dissected Sentences Repeating Four Digits How The Scale Is Used Alternative Test 2: Counting The Value Of Stamps Necessity Of Securing Attention And Effort Other Conceptions Of Intelligence Intelligence Tests As A Basis For Grading The Avoidance Of Fatigue |
## Reversing Hands Of ClockPROCEDURE. Say to the subject: "_Suppose it is six twenty-two o'clock, that is, twenty-two minutes after six; can you see in your mind where the large hand would be, and where the small hand would be?_" Subjects of 12- to 14-year intelligence practically always answer this in the affirmative. Then continue: "_Now, suppose the two hands of the clock were to trade places, so that the large hand takes the place where the small hand was, and the small hand takes the place where the large hand was. What time would it then be?_" Repeat the test with the hands at 8.10 (10 minutes after 8), and again with the hands at 2.46 (14 minutes before 3). The subject is not allowed to look at a clock or watch, or to aid himself by drawing, but must work out the problem mentally. As a rule the answer is given within a few seconds or not at all. If an answer is not forthcoming within two minutes the score is failure. SCORING. The test is passed if _two of the three_ problems are solved within the following range of accuracy: the first solution is considered correct if the answer falls between 4.30 and 4.35, inclusive; the second if the answer falls between 1.40 and 1.45, and the third if the answer falls between 9.10 and 9.15. REMARKS. It appears that success in the test chiefly depends upon voluntary control over constructive visual imagery. Weakness of visual imagery may account for the failure of a considerable percentage of adults to pass the test. Visual imagery, however, is not absolutely necessary to success. One 8-year-old prodigy, who had 12-year intelligence, arrived in forty seconds at a strictly mathematical solution for the second problem, as follows: "If it is 2.46, and the hands trade places, then the little hand has gone about one fourth of the distance from 9 o'clock to 10 o'clock. One fourth of 60 minutes is 15 minutes, and so the time would be 15 minutes after 9 o'clock." Such a solution is certainly possible by the use of verbal imagery of any type. The test shows a high correlation with mental age, but more than most others it is subject to the influence of cribbing. For this reason, other positions of the clock hands should be tried out for the purpose of finding substitute experiments of equal difficulty. Until such experiments have been made, it will be necessary to confine the experiment to the three positions here presented. Schooling seems to have no influence whatever on the percentage of passes. This test was first used by Binet in 1905, but was not included in either the 1908 or 1911 series. Goddard and Kuhlmann both include the test in their revisions, placing it in year XV. They give only two problems (our _a_ and _c_) and require that both be answered correctly. Neither Goddard nor Kuhlmann, however, indicates the degree of error permitted. Something depends upon original position of the hands. Binet used 6.20 and 2.46. For some reason the 2.46 arrangement is much more difficult than either 8.10 or 6.22, yielding almost twice as many failures as either of the other positions. Next: Alternative Tests: Repeating Seven Digits Previous: Arithmetical Reasoning
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