## IntelligenceSummary Of ChangesIntelligence Tests Of Delinquents Copying A Diamond Alternative Test 3: Construction Puzzle A (healy And Fernald) Nature Of The Stanford Revision And Extension Differences Between Abstract Terms Other Fallacies In The Estimation Of Intelligence Pointing To Parts Of The Body Detecting Absurdities Desirable Range Of Testing Essential Nature Of The Scale Comprehension Second Degree The Ball-and-field Test (score 2 Inferior Plan) Arithmetical Reasoning Superior Adult 6: Ingenuity Test Scattering Of Successes Comparison Of Lines The Importance Of Tact The Validity Of The Intelligence Quotient Drawing Designs From Memory |
## Making ChangePROCEDURE. Ask the following questions in the order here given:-- (a) "_If I were to buy 4 cents worth of candy and should give the storekeeper 10 cents, how much money would I get back?_" (b) "_If I bought 13 cents worth and gave the storekeeper 15 cents, how much would I get back?_" (c) "_If I bought 4 cents worth and gave the storekeeper 25 cents, how much would I get back?_" Coins are not used, and the subject is not allowed the help of pencil and paper. If the subject forgets the statement of the problem, it is permissible to repeat it once, but only once. The response should be made in ten or fifteen seconds for each problem. SCORING, The test is passed if _two out of three_ problems are answered correctly in the allotted time. In case two answers are given to a problem, we follow the usual rule of counting the second and ignoring the first. REMARKS. Problems of this nature, when thoroughly standardized, are extremely valuable as tests of intelligence. The difficulty of the test, as we have used it, does not lie in the subtraction of 4 from 10, 12 from 15, etc. Such subtractions, when given as problems in subtraction, are readily solved by practically all normal 8-year-olds who have attended school as much as two years. The problems of the test have a twofold difficulty: (1) The statement of the problem must be comprehended and held in mind until the solution has been arrived at; (2) the problem is so stated that the subject must himself select the fundamental operation which applies. The latter difficulty is somewhat the greater of the two, addition sometimes being employed instead of subtraction. It is just such difficulties as this that prove so perplexing to the feeble-minded. High-grade defectives, although they require more than the usual amount of drill and are likely to make occasional errors, are nevertheless capable of learning to add, subtract, multiply, and divide fairly well. Their main trouble comes in deciding which of these operations a given problem calls for. They can master routine, but as regards initiative, judgment, and power to reason they are little educable. The psychology and pedagogy of mental deficiency is epitomized in this statement. There has been little disagreement as to the proper location of the test of making change, but various procedures have been employed. Coins have generally been employed, in which case the subject is actually allowed to make the change. Most other revisions have also given only a single problem, usually 4 cents out of 20 cents, or 4 out of 25, or 9 out of 25. It is evident that these are not all of equal difficulty. There is general agreement, however, that normal children of 9 years should be able to make simple change. Next: Repeating Four Digits Reversed Previous: Arranging Five Weights
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