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Enumeration Of Objects In Pictures

PROCEDURE. Use the three pictures designated as "Dutch Home," "River
Scene," and "Post-Office." Say, "_Now I am going to show you a pretty
picture._" Then, holding the first one before the child, close enough to
permit distinct vision, say: "_Tell me what you see in this picture._"
If there is no response, as sometimes happens, due to embarrassment or
timidity, repeat the request in this form: "_Look at the picture and
tell me everything you can see in it._" If there is still no response,
say: "_Show me the ..._" (naming some object in the picture). Only one
question of this type, however, is permissible. If the child answers
correctly, say: "_That is fine; now tell me everything you see in the
picture._" From this point the responses nearly always follow without
further coaxing. Indeed, if _rapport_ has been properly cultivated
before the test begins, the first question will ordinarily be
sufficient. If the child names one or two things in a picture and then
stops, urge him on by saying "_And what else_" Proceed with pictures _b_
and _c_ in the same manner.

SCORING. The test is passed if the child enumerates as many as _three_
objects in _one_ picture _spontaneously_; that is, without intervening
questions or urging. Anything better than enumeration (as description
or interpretation) is also acceptable, but description is rarely
encountered before 5 years and interpretation rarely before 9 or 10.

REMARKS. The purpose of the test in this year is to find out whether the
sight of a familiar object in a picture provokes recognition and calls
up the appropriate name. The average child of 3 or 4 years is in
what Binet calls "the identification stage"; that is, familiar objects
in a picture will be identified but not described, their relations to
one another will not be grasped.

In giving the test, always present the pictures in the same order,
first Dutch Home, then River Scene, then Post-Office. The order of
presentation will no doubt seem to the uninitiated too trivial a matter
to insist upon, but a little experience teaches one that an apparently
insignificant change in the procedure may exert a considerable influence
upon the response. Some pictures tend more strongly than others to
provoke a particular type of response. Some lend themselves especially
to enumeration, others to description, others to interpretation. The
pictures used in the Stanford revision have been selected from a number
which have been tried because they are more uniform in this respect
than most others in use. However, they are not without their
differences, picture _b_, for example, tending more than the others to
provoke description.

There seems to be no disagreement as to the proper location of this

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