Giving The Date

PROCEDURE. Ask the following questions in order:--

(a) "_What day of the week is it to-day?_"

(b) "_What month is it?_"

(c) "_What day of the month is it?_"

(d) "_What year is it?_"

If the child misunderstands and gives the day of the month for the day

of the week, or _vice versa_, we merely repeat the question with

suitable emphasis, but give no other help.

SCORING. An error of three days in either direction is allowed for _c_,

but _a_, _b_, and _d_ must all be given correctly. If the child makes an

error and spontaneously corrects it, the change is allowed, but

corrections must not be called for or suggested.

REMARKS. Binet originally located this test in year IX, but

unfortunately moved it to year VIII in the 1911 revision. Kuhlmann,

Goddard, and Huey all retain it in year IX, where, according to our own

data, it unquestionably belongs. With the exception of Binet's 1911

results, the statistics for the test are in remarkably close agreement

for children in France, Germany, England, and Eastern and Western United

States. It seems that practically all children in civilized countries

have ample opportunity to learn the divisions of the year, month, and

week, and to become oriented with respect to these divisions. Special

instruction is doubtless capable of hastening time orientation to a

certain degree, but not greatly. Binet tells of a French _ecole

maternelle_ attended by children 4 to 6 years of age, where instruction

was given daily in regard to the date, and yet not a single one of the

children was able to pass this test. This is a beautiful illustration of

the futility of precocious teaching. In spite of well-meant instruction,

it is not until the age of 8 or 9 years that children have enough

comprehension of time periods, and sufficient interest in them, to keep

very close track of the date. Failure to pass the test at the age of

10 or 11 years is a decidedly unfavorable sign, unless the error is very


The fact that normal adults are occasionally unable to give the day of

the month is no argument against the validity of the test, since the

system of tests is so constructed as to allow for accidental failures on

any particular test. As a matter of fact, very nearly 100 per cent of

normal 12-year-old children pass this test.

The unavoidable fault of the test is its lack of uniformity in

difficulty at different dates. It is easier for school children to give

the day of the week on Monday or Friday than on Tuesday, Wednesday, or

Thursday. Mistakes in giving the day of the month are less likely to

occur at the beginning or end of the month than at any other time, while

mistakes in naming the month are most likely to occur then.

It is interesting to compare the four parts of this test in regard to

difficulty. Binet and Bobertag both state that ability to name the year

comes last, but they give no figures. Our own data show that the four

parts of the test are of almost exactly the same difficulty and that

this is true at all ages.